reflection of electromagnetic waves from
a reflection of light from a flat surface of the semi-infinite
homogeneous amplifyng medium is considered and the reflection
coefficients for monochromatic plane waves are found. from
the obtained results it follows that sommerfeld's radiation
principle is invalid for the infinite amplifyng media. possible
explanation of the results of experimental measuring of
the reflection coefficients for the active media is made
on basis of the developed theory.
diffraction theory ot holography
the present paper deals with diffraction theory of holography.
the consequences of the theory were analized. it was shown,
that in holographic schemes, satisfactorily described by
this theory, reconstruction of the images/Image is possible
only at definite positions of reconstruction wave. the holographic
scheme without reference wave was analized. it was shown,
that by hologram of intensities it is possible to reconstruct
the images/Image with the requirements for stability being
more simple, than in schemes of common holography.
synthesis of 3d x-ray images
a theoretical model of the holographic synthesis of 3d
x-ray images is proposed. on its basis it is shown, that
assuming the specific syntheses conditions the false images/Image
field is equivalent to the object material density and creates
the observation illusion of the object internal structure
from the x-ray source side. the real reconstructed images/Image
allows to obtain tomographic images of the object. the calculated
properties of the ideal synthesizsd images are in good agreement
with the experimental ones.
of the electromagnetic field and its
the kirchhoff-kottler electromagnetic diffraction integral
has been considered. paraxlal approximation of the latter
is used in the theoretical substantion of the method of
polarized holographic recording.
the further theoretical development of the method has been
carried out. the following items have been discussed: the
general case of the condition of the reference beam polarization,
the recording in complex weigert effect (birefrigence +
dichroism) and the recording in combined actions of complex
weigert effect and complex scalar photo chemical effect,
which is of the gratest interest from the standpoint of
real photoanisotropic materials.
experimental results of the polarized holographic recording
are carried out which are in close agreement with the developed
method op recording and
of images in optics
the method of the optical reconstruction of object by measuring
the autocorrelation function of far-field radiation are
considered. the methods are based on application of the
exponential filtration of recived signal and noncoherent
reference source. the possibilities of using the intensity
interferograms for this purpose are analysed. the distortions
of the reconstructed images/Image due to nonmonochromatic
sources are estimated.
a new method characterising properties of holograms is
presented. the mathematical description of interference
pattern structure is given in terms of the group theory.
a group theory model of hologram is considered.
a total group classification of holograms is described.
it is shown that the prognostic of the new type of holograms
is possible. exemples are given to show how the group theory
model of hologram can be used.
effects im holography
under discussion is the potential part of the waves fields
quantum nature in holography. for the electromagnetic field
the part of the quanta absorbtion noise is evaluated and
the dependent on the vacuum quantum electromagnetic field
principal limit of the information capasity of the holographic
channel is evaluated.
optical filtration process and
of holographic filter recording
the probability of modelling of the optical filtration
process is considered. there is given a solution of the
problem of recording optimal choice (relation between the
intensities of recording beams and exposure time) with regard
to real characteristics of photomaterial and to filter present
parameters (selectivity and differential efficiency). as
an illustration the filter optimal parameters are calculated
to solve the problem of centrally-symetrlcal object distribution
(circules of differefat radii simulating bacteria colonies).
state amd problems of holobraphic
prospects of holographic interferometry as compared to
the classical interferometry are considered. it is indicated
that in holographic interferometry the type of objects under
investigation has been extended significantly, including
diffuse-reflective objects, however, methods of the classical
interferometry based on shearing interferometry and interference
comparison with a reference specimen appeared to be inapplicable
to diffuse-reflective objects and in holographic interferometry.
a new trend in holographic interferometry is described which
is based on correlation of the intensity of diffuse-coherent
radiation and which overcomes the above restriction. some
problems of calculation and technique of holographic interferometry
are but briefly discussed.
measurement errors in holographic
op reflective objects
main sources of errors of measurements of surface displacements
of diffuse-reflective objects by the holographic interferometry
method are analysed. relationships between errors of determining
displacements and errors of directly taken values are obtained.
the presence of a systematic error of measurements dependent
of averaging the interference images/Image over the aperture
of the registering optical system is indicated; its dependence
on the apperture and displacement vector is obtained and
the method for taking it into account is given. for a specific
holographic scheme estimates of a mean square error of determining
displacements are arrived at.
the number of different methods to produce replicas of
holograms are compared, and certain application fields are
the equation to produce thin replica by interference technique
is given. the effects of type of the original hologram,
the spacing between the hologram and replication material,
the form of replication wavefront, and the wavelength of
the replicating radiation on the properties of interference
replicas are discussed.
the equations to determine the spacing between "the duble
images", reconstructed by thin replica, are obtained.
the experimental results of replication of the pattern
fringes of fourier-mlcroholograms of technical documents
and characteristics of a
thin phase hologram
some holographic methods for getting of the precise parameters
of phase-exposure dependence of recording media are described.
intel-modulation noise is shown to be is under the most
influence of the material nonlinearity, while the nonlinear
distorslons of half tone could be decreesed by particulary
compensation of the intrinsic nonlinearity of a thin phase
hologram with material nonlinearity.
laser in holographic experiments and
results are reported on theoretical and experimental investigation
of coherence properties of the injection semiconductor laser's
emission. a possibility is shown for hologram recording,
holographic interferometry, single-pulse holography and
reading-out of information stored at a density of 105
bit/mm2 using semiconductor laser.
radiohologram formation and
some formation features of quasi-optical radioholograms
registered on discrete and continuous recording media are
considered. moreover, some principles of synthesieing radioholograms
of objects moving with respect to the receiving and transmitting
antennae are discussed.
holography used to recommend etalons of complex form is
considered. some technical difficulties of the method and
ways of their overcoming are discussed.
film fpg-v2 and its treatament
n.s.gafurova, a.v.borin, v.p.miheeva
the photographic properties of the new holographic film
fpg-v2 and the method of its treatament to obtain maximum
value of diffraction efficiency are described.
materials for holography
in the present paper it is reported about the properties
of photographic materials for recording of laser radiation
in the region of 0,69 mkm, 0,84 mkm and 1,06 mkm.
and perspectives of the development
and unconventional holographic
the review of the holographic performances of erasable
(organic and inorganic photochromic materials, electro-optic
crystals, photothermoplastics, elastomer devices, magneto-optic
materials, liquid-crystal systems, absorbing liquids and
semiconductor crystals, chalcogenide fims, and glasses)
and irreversible (photopolimers, photoresists, gelatin-di-
chromate layers, metal-semiconductor systems, metal films)
holographic light sensitive recording media is present.
perspectives of the improvement and possibilities holographic
applications of this materials are discussed.
registration on thermoplastic
some performance peculiarities of thermoplastic media /tm/
at registration and reproduction of optical holograms are
stated in the work.
the spectral sensitive region, latent imaging, development
and transfer function are considered.
on the basis of analysis the conclusion io drawn that the
tm may register optical holograms over the whole visible
and near infrared and reproduce the holograms in the real
time scale. spacial frequency band of the transfer function
is determined by rheological properties of the thermoplastic
layer and controlled by the surface potential rate of temperature
increase and time of development.
semiconductor-metall systems as
this paper is devoted to the main properties and some characteristics
of the new photographic materials. this materials worked
out on the effect of the photographic light-sensitive semiconductor-metall
systems discovered by author and his collaborators.
organic holographic recording
the preparation, use, general properties and review the
processe of hologram formation in several of the most promising
new organic holographic recording materials (photoresist,
photopolymers, free-radical photographic systems) are discussed,
and relevant experimenta data for important holographic
parameters auoh as difraction efficiency and modulation
transfer function are presented.
materials and applications in
the holographic properties of the organic and inorganic
photochromic materials are reviewed. result of the applications
of some materials in holographic devices are discussed.